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For Scilla, the great variety and disorderliness of the glossopetrae at a particular place entailed that they were not originally grown there or generated and created by a fixed seminal principle. And if there were such a seminal principle, it is not likely that it should be common to fish, shells, and glossopetrae. The argument, of course, was directed against those who asserted that the shells were originally formed by a plastic power of the earth. 22 Steno studied medicine in his native Denmark.

Scafi, Alessandro. 2006. Mapping paradise: a history of heaven on earth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sedley, David. 1987. Philoponus’s conception of space. In Philoponus and the rejection of Aristotelian science, ed. R. Sorabji, 140–153. London: Duckworth. Short, John Rennie. 2004. Making space. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. Simon, Gérard. 2003. Archéologie de la vision : l’optique, le corps, la peinture. Paris: Seuil. Simplicius. 1992. Corollaries on place and time, trans J.

60 Indeed, he recognized the possibility of solving what we would call “cosmological” problems through a study of light’s behavior. In turn, he set optics at the core of his Pythagorean natural philosophy. Optics had a special capacity for unveiling errors of perception: “What art shows the reasons for so many 55Ptolemy’s Geography was rendered into Latin by Jacopo d’Angelo, who gave the book the title Cosmographia because Ptolemy’s method connected the earth with the heavens. The translation circulated in manuscript form from 1406 onwards.

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