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By Peter Duren

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Throwing a rock) could briefly overcome the natural motion of objects, it could not be the basis for understanding nature. Motion in the heavens, such Figure 4: Aristotle’s model of the Universe. as the path of the stars, sun, and moon, was all circular. Since the natural motion of an object was an inherent characteristic of the matter of the object, celestial and terrestrial elements could not be the same. In addition to the four elements of earth, water, air, and fire, Aristotle also included the four qualities and the four causes.

It was a perfect excuse to charge huge prices for nothing. MIDDLE EAST The English word alchemy comes from the Arabic word al-kimiya’, and a wide range of alchemical and chemical ideas come from the work of Arabic and Islamic scholars. Islamic alchemy differs from that of China in a number of important ways. The first is historical. The roots of Chinese alchemy are lost in the mists of history, and the Chinese tradition of attribution to historical figures 23 24 The Chemical Element further clouds the story.

When the medicine was made, he tested them. He said, “The gold medicine is made but it ought first to be tested on the dog. ” Po-Yang gives his secret medicine to the dog, and instantly the dog dies. This seems to indicate that Po-Yang has either not completed the process or made some error. This places his disciples in a quandary, since they believe that he has the secret knowledge and it would be difficult to criticize the master. They ask Po-Yang if he would take his own medicine, but his answer does not really clear up the disciples’ uncertainty.

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