By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough experiences ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar reports the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse gains of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological beneficial properties, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our realizing of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan kinfolk of languages in historic and areal point of view.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
The reduplicant— the word-initial syllable—is always stressed. In the reduplicated plurals below, the unstressed vowel of the stem is lost when the stress shifts to the reduplicant. This will occur unless a super-heavy syllable will result. There are rare exceptions (for instance, the plural of ay’anish ‘big’ is always a’ayanish instead of expected *a’yanish or *a’ay’anish). (54) Vowel deletion in reduplication a. nentam ‘chiefs, lineage heads’ < ne-ne-t-m b. nintam ‘pregnant women’ < ni-ni-t-m c.
Qeqa ‘is biting’ b. qe’ ‘will bite’ Long vowels that originate in root-initial stressed syllables, which, as suggested above, mainly reflect lost laryngeal consonants, do not require such final glottal stops; contrast the examples in (40, 41) with those in (38, 39). (40) a. muuqa ‘is shooting with a bow’ b. muu ‘will shoot with a bow’ (41) a. xeeqa ‘is blowing (of wind), cooling off’ b. xee ‘will blow, cool off’ I have identified only one case of a syllable-final consonant cluster, the sequence /w’/ before /n/, appearing in two words: hew’nin ‘carry in hand’ and tew’naan ‘to plant’.
As onset: qa’ ‘is there’, qenyish ‘good-smelling/tasting’, qingish ‘squirrel’, qusa’ish ‘alive’ b. as coda: hiqsa’ ‘rest, sigh, catch breath’ (b) hiqsa’ probably includes the root qusa’ ‘be alive, breathe’, seen in (9a). ) (10) /’/ a. as onset: ay’anish ‘big’, e’e ‘you (singular)’, elel’ish ‘bad’, inga’inga’ash ‘rough’, pu’u’uy ‘eat (habilitative)’ b. as coda: a’chimal ‘pretty, nice’ Glottal stop in word-initial position is not written in the practical orthography. 3). The affricate, orthographic ch, is the same as the fricative [S] but with a homorganic stop onset, [tS] in IPA notation, though this notation fails to capture the fact that the onset is homorganic with [S] (Golla 2005).