By Donald J. Hanahan
This e-book presents a concise advent to phospholipid chemistry and is meant for a wide viewers of biologists, biochemists, and graduate scholars. constructed as a part of a graduate direction on lipids, this booklet additionally serves as a reference for laboratory investigators on sign transduction and organic membranes. the 1st a part of the textual content is dedicated to an orientation to the chemical nature of lipids in most cases, how they're regarded as linked within the mobilephone, and the technique in which the mobile lipids (including the phospholipids) should be recovered from cells and subjected to an preliminary identity. next chapters symbolize the choline-containing phospholipids, together with the sphingolipids, the non-choline containing phospholipids, and eventually, the so-called minor phospholipids. The latter compounds, which act as agonists or lipid chemical mediators on cells, shape a leading edge of a brand new classification of biologically lively ingredients and feature set the learn of mobile phospholipids on a brand new and exiting direction. most significantly, this ebook offers a foundation for extra inquiry on those complex molecules, displaying that even supposing the compounds are designated, with care and knowing, they are often studied conveniently
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Additional info for A Guide to Phospholipid Chemistry
5 volume water and vigorously mixed using a laboratory vortex unit. Phase separation occurs and usually a well-defined upper and lower phase is ob- 42 A GUIDE TO PHOSPHOL1PID CHEMISTRY tained. However, these phases may not always be clear and it is necessary to centrifuge this mixture at 2000g for 10 min. Then the water-rich upper phase is carefully removed and saved. 5 volume of this solvent. In each washing, the protocol is to vortex the mixture vigorously and then centrifuge to allow complete separation of the phases.
Furthermore, the negatively charged phosphate (oxygen) group can attract a positively charged group on a peptide chain, particularly a lysine residue, and hence within a short distance a double interaction can occur. These interactions can be repeated many times over in lipid-protein complexes and in general can be considered operative to a distance of 10-20 A. Polarization Forces These very weak forces arise by virtue of the polarization of a molecule by the charge or permanent electric moment on an adjacent molecule.
This high-molecular-weight complex is called prothrombinase. If this enzyme preparation is passed through a Sephadex column in the absence of calcium ions, the complex dissociates and a factor V • phospholipid fraction elutes separate from the factor Xa. The latter has very low proteolytic activity as isolated. However, upon recombination of these fractions in the presence of calcium ions, the high-molecular-weight prothrombinase can be recovered in highly active form. Again the phospholipid in this instance is considered to be a cofactor and is not chemically altered in any of the reactions, and its influence on the reaction is illustrated in Table 1-8.