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By Narayan Yoganandan, Alan M. Nahum, John W. Melvin, The Medical College of Wisconsin Inc

This ebook presents a state of the art examine the utilized biomechanics of unintentional damage and prevention. The editors, Drs. Narayan Yoganandan, Alan M. Nahum and John W. Melvin are well-known foreign leaders and researchers in harm biomechanics, prevention and trauma drugs. they've got assembled popular researchers as authors for 29 chapters to hide person elements of human damage evaluate and prevention.

This 3rd variation is carefully revised and improved with new chapters in several fields. subject matters lined deal with car, aviation, army and different environments. box information assortment; damage coding/scaling; damage epidemiology; mechanisms of damage; human tolerance to harm; simulations utilizing experimental, advanced computational types (finite aspect modeling) and statistical techniques; anthropomorphic try machine layout, improvement and validation for crashworthiness functions in issues mentioned above; and present laws are lined. hazard services and harm standards for varied physique areas are incorporated. grownup and pediatric populations are addressed. The exhaustive checklist of references in lots of parts besides the most recent advancements is efficacious to all these concerned or intend to pursue this crucial subject on human harm biomechanics and prevention.

The increased version will curiosity numerous students and pros together with physicians, biomedical researchers in lots of disciplines, easy scientists, legal professionals and jurists focused on unintentional harm circumstances and governmental our bodies. it truly is was hoping that this booklet will foster multidisciplinary collaborations via scientific and engineering researchers and academicians and working towards physicians for damage review and prevention and stimulate extra utilized examine, schooling and coaching within the box of accidental-injury causation and prevention.

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Extra resources for Accidental Injury: Biomechanics and Prevention

Example text

The third report is by Adams et al. [110] who purported to show the scan of a ruptured disc due to compressive load with moderate flexion. However, there was no scan of the specimen prior to load application. The rupture could have been pre-existing. These reports, in fact, tend to reinforce the point of view that a single loading event is unable to cause disc rupture. On the contrary, repeated loading of the disc can produce rupture but the number of loading cycles is very high. Yang et al. [111] produced disc ruptures (extrusion of nuclear material to the outside of the disc) by the application of repetitive torsional loads combined with compression and flexion, with the facets removed.

The difficulty appears to be located in the back of the neck where the extensor muscles are located. These muscles undergo concentric contraction and are not likely to be injured. Tencer et al. [72] 16 proposed that the injury to the extensor muscles occurred during rebound of the head and neck as they undergo eccentric contraction. The mechanism is biomechanically consistent with the results of Garrett et al. [71] but the hypothesis flies in the face of many more frontal impacts in which there is hyperflexion due to severe crashes and there are not a large number of complaints of neck ache from these crash victims.

I. King Yang and Begeman [79] proposed the shear hypothesis which attributes the pain to the facet capsule which can be stretched during whiplash. The motion of the torso precedes that of the neck and in order for the head to remain attached to the torso, a shear force is generated at each cervical level and transmitted up the cervical spine until it reaches the occipital condyles where the force can act on the head to cause it to move forward. This shearing action causes relative motion between adjacent vertebrae which can be most pronounced at the lower cervical levels where the facet angle is less steep.

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