By Henry C. Lee, Robert Ramotowski, R. E. Gaensslen
Fingerprints represent probably the most vital different types of actual proof, and it really is one of the few that may be actually individualized. over the last 20 years, many new and fascinating advancements have taken position within the box of fingerprint technology, fairly within the realm of equipment for constructing latent prints and within the progress of imaging and AFIS applied sciences. This totally up-to-date moment version of the bestseller, Advances in Fingerprint know-how, covers significant advancements in latent fingerprint processing, together with actual, chemical, instrumental, and mixture suggestions. Written via a well known workforce of prime forensic id and criminalistic specialists, this important paintings offers fascinating growth in fingerprint technology.New during this edition:oLatent fingerprint chemistry oTechniques directed at lipid-soluble parts oMore succinct remedy of AFIS oA new technique that applies nanocrystal know-how to latent fingerprint developmentoA systematic, statistically-based standpoint concerning the individuality of fingerprints
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Extra resources for Advances in Fingerprint Technology, Second Edition
Friction ridge characteristics. ”3 Forensic scientists who fail to understand the scientific methodology involved in their 0923Ch02Frame Page 45 Monday, May 14, 2001 1:31 PM work will quite often fare badly under rigorous cross-examination when defending their findings in a court of law. Individualization is unique to forensic science; it refers to the demonstration that a particular sample is unique, even among members of the same class. It may also refer to the demonstration that a questioned piece of physical evidence and a similar known sample have a common origin.
HENRY C. LEE Contents Introduction Recognition and Examination Identification and Individualization Osborn Grid Method Seymour Trace Method Photographic Strip Method Polygon Method Overlay Method Osterburg Grid Method Microscopic Triangulation Method Conventional Method Experience and Skill Identification Protocol Reconstruction Conclusion References Introduction The efforts of latent print examiners are directed toward two ultimate goals: one is the successful developing or enhancing of a latent print, and the other is identification or elimination based upon the developed latent print.
11 A transparent grid is superimposed over the latent and inked prints, but whereas the Osborn grid has no specific measurements, the grid lines of the Osterburg grid are at 1-mm intervals. The Osterburg method, however, goes beyond simply matching characteristics in corresponding grid cells. Each type of characteristic is weighed according to a purported order of frequency, and weights are also assigned to cells without a characteristic. Determination of identity is made by the total value of the weighed characteristics found in a given area.