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2002), Civil aviation regimes and leisure tourism in Europe, Journal of Air Transport Management. Parkinson, J. and A. Sentance (2002), Airport capacity and the future of the European hub airports, paper presented to the 6th Air Transport Research Society Conference, Seattle. E. J. Baumol (1966), The demand for abstract modes: theory and measurement, Journal of Regional Science, 6: 13-26. Reynolds-Feighan, A. J. Button (1999), An assessment of the capacity and congestion levels at European airports, Journal of Air Transport Management, 5: 113-134.

A network of three nodes (as in Figure 1), all linked, requires three services, but only two if one node is used as a hub and traffic is funnelled through it. If there are four nodes this requires six fully-connected services but only three through a hub; with five nodes it requires ten 36 Round Table 126: Airports as Multimodal Interchange Nodes – ISBN 92-821-0339-0 - © ECMT, 2005 fully-connected services or four through a hub; with six nodes, 15 direct services or five through a hub, and so on.

For example, in terms of freight, the types of cargo carried by sea (low value, high bulk) make interlining with air transportation unlikely. Equally, there would seem to be few circumstances where either rail or trucking would enjoy significant economies of scale and scope by serving both a seaport and an airport. There are also questions about the economic benefits to a region of focusing on transit activities that may offer little value added to the local community. 6. Environmental factors Transportation imposes a plethora of environmental costs.

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