Download An Introduction to Crime and Crime Causation by Globokar, Julie L.; Roberson, Cliff; Winters, Robert C PDF

By Globokar, Julie L.; Roberson, Cliff; Winters, Robert C

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Those who were wealthy enough to pay fines could often do so in lieu of corporal punishment, and punishments were shaped in part by the relative status of the victim and offender. One author offered the following description: Whippings of up to 40 lashes were most frequently administered for immorality, being the form of payment which could be made Chapter two: The concept of crime 27 by servants, who accounted for most of these cases. More severe application of the lash appears to have been reserved for insubordinate behavior: the scattered instances of mutiny of slaves against an overseer, a wrongful accusation of bastardy, a servant woman’s false accusation of her mistress of acts of unchastity were punished by 100 lashes on the bare back.

The previously dominant goal of rehabilitation was overtaken with an emphasis on incapacitation as states and the federal government adopted longer sentences for a broad range of crimes, including relatively minor drug offenses. In their well-known work on this “new penology,” Malcolm Feeley and Jonathan Simon observed the following changes:26 • A shift from a moral or rehabilitative language within corrections to actuarial discourse about the risks posed by offenders • An emphasis on risk management rather than rehabilitation or social work • A general pessimism regarding the potential to change offenders in any fundamental way The United States now incarcerates a greater portion of its population than any other nation in the world.

Laws are most effective when the norms they represent have been internalized. ” • Acts that are labeled as “criminal” by law overlap, but not perfectly, with acts that result in social harm. • There is no single answer to the question of what causes crime. • Crime is most likely to result when multiple risk factors converge. • The potential solutions to crime are as varied as crime itself. • Society’s responses to crime aim to fulfill one or more of five commonly held goals: incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, and restoration.

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